No category

پایان نامه با واژه های کلیدی and، the، of، critical

conclusions and solutions through testing them against relevant criteria and standards; and
(c) thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizes and assesses their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences,andcommunicates with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems.
Furthermore, Starkey (2004, p.vii) maintains that a critical thinker is willing to explore, question, and search out answers and solutions. Not only do these skills mean greater success at school and at work, but also they are the basis of better decisions and problem solving at home, too. Halpern (1996) also points out that an essential component of CT is the progress of the attitude and disposition of a critical thinker. Good thinkers are motivated and willing to make the conscious effort needed to work in a plan or manner, to check for accuracy, to gather information, and to persist when the solution is not obvious or requires several steps. A critical thinkers will exhibit the following dispositions or attitudes: a)willingness to plan, flexibility, and persistenceand willingness to self-correct.
b)Being mindful, that is, having meta-cognition or meta-cognitive monitoring. Consensus-seeking means a critical thinker will need to be disposed to ways in which consensus can be achieved. Consensus-seekers will need high-level communication skills, but they will also need to find ways to compromise and to achieve agreement.
۲.۴ Critical Thinking Skills
Paul and Elder (2004,p.42) believe that True excellence in thinking is not simply the result of isolated intellectual skills they are as follow:
۱. Fair-Mindedness
۲. Having Knowledge of Ignorance
۳. Intellectual Humility
۴. Intellectual Courage
۵. Intellectual Empathy
۶. Intellectual Empathy
۷.Intellectual Perseverance
۸. Intellectual Perseverance
۹. Confidence in Reason
۱۰. Intellectual Autonomy
۱۱. Intellectual Autonomy
According to Starkey (2004, p.viii) critical thinking skills include the ability to:
– make observations
– be curious, asking relevant questions and finding
the resources you need
– challenge and examine beliefs, assumptions, and opinions against facts
-recognize and define problems
– assess the validity of statements and arguments
– make wise decisions and find valid solutions
– understand logic and logical argument
Halpern’s skill categories(1984 as cited in Moseley et al. 2005, p.121)
are: memory; thought and language; deductive reasoning; argument analysis; hypothesis testing; likelihood and uncertainty; decision-making; problem-solving; and creative thinking.
۲.۵. Teaching Critical Thinking
According to Schafersman (1991) children are not born with the power to think critically, nor do they develop this ability naturally beyond survival-level thinking. Critical thinking is a learned ability that must be taught. Most individuals never learn it. Critical thinking cannot be taught reliably to students by peers or by most parents. Trained and knowledgeable instructors are necessary to impart the proper information and skills.
Üstünlüog˘lu (2004) believes that critical thinking skills are not likely to develop spontaneously and teachers must take a directive role in initiating and guiding critical thinking. Language classes are particularly appropriate for teaching critical thinking owing to the richness of material and the interactive approaches used.
Taking the idea that language classes are appropriate for teaching critical thinking, this question rings a bell that is critical thinking applicable at different stages and ages. Some specialists are of the opinion that critical thinking can be applied at different levels of age and proficiency. Waters (2006) tries to support the idea that critical thinking is independent of language proficiency level and is applicable at different levels. Following Water’s point of view, teaching critical thinking at different levels and ages is not out of reach, though challenging, and are up to promotion through the following ways.
۲.۵.۱. How to Teach Critical Thinking
Despite the consensus that critical thinking needs to be taught more effectively at all educational levels, there is little agreement on how it should be taught. Regarding the teachability of critical thinking Wright (2002) proposes three main ways for teaching critical thinking in the class, teacher modeling, classroom activities, and teaching the tools of critical thinking.
Halpern (1999) takes up a four-part model of instruction for critical thinking which includes instruction in the skills, dispositions for critical thinking, structure training, and the last component of critical thinking instruction is metacognitive monitoring.
Rudd (2006) asserts that teachers who are interested in teaching students to arrive at reasonable, high-quality critical thinking outcomes should pay particular attention to developing the students critical thinking skill, teaching the knowledge necessary to solve the problems faced, and molding critical thinking dispositions. In addition, teachers must be aware of student academic strengths and weaknesses, as well as other personal factors that can influence problem solving and decision making. Finally, the environment in which the teaching and learning occurs is critical to the success of thinking processes.
Smith (2003) argues that critical thinking has both cognitive and attitudinal dimensions, in teaching critical thinking one must not only know-how to think critically, but also must be inclined to do so on appropriate occasions. Knowing how involves possession of certain skills (as for analyzing arguments) and related knowledge of strategies, methods, heuristics, concepts, and principles. Elder (2005) supports the idea that essential component of critical thinking is developing the attitudes and disposition of a critical thinker. It is of no value to learn a variety of critical thinking skills if you never use them. Developing a critical thinking attitude is at least as important as developing thinking skills. Students will not develop intellectual standards that discipline their thought if they do not grasp what intellectual standards are or understand their importance.
Taking the idea that critical thinking is teachable through instruction; the question of how to implement it arises. Wright (2002) proposes several ways of organizing for instruction in critical thinking: teach a separate course or unit, infuse critical thinking into what we teach, or we can use a mixed approach.
The first approach of separate course or unit requires materials that teach specifically for critical thinking dispositions, skills, and knowledge. Infusion, the second possible approach, requires that critical thinking be taught as an integral part of all subject areas. The benefits here are that critical thinking is not viewed as an “add on,” and that all content is taught about critically, rather than being treated as a set of insert facts to be memorized. The benefits of combining the two basic approaches should be obvious, but whatever approach is taken needs to be adapted to the context.
According to Bessick (2008) developing and improving critical thinking skills through instruction that is not course-specific may result in several positive changes for students and universities. It can improve academic achievement; facilitate the acquisition of a greater repertoire of skills employers desire; maximize the tutoring experience; improve research abilities.
Bailin (2002) holds firmly to the idea that becoming proficient at critical thinking involves, among other things, takes the acquisition of certain kinds of knowledge. Knowledge of critical concepts such as ‘premise’, ‘conclusion’, ‘cause and effect’, ‘necessary and sufficient condition’; knowledge of methodological principles; and knowledge of the criteria for critical judgment. Such knowledge is not simply raw material but is very much part of what is involved in thinking critically. Thus what is involved in thinking critically is closely tied to various kinds of knowledge in the particular area.
Paul (1990) divides cognitive strategies into macro-abilities and micro-skills, most elementary skills of critical thinking (the micro-skills), the fundamentals: What an assumption is, what an implication is, what an inference and conclusion are, what it is to isolate an issue, what it is to offer reasons or evidence in support of what one says, how to identify a contradiction or a vague sentence.
Wright (2002) as well believes that in teaching critical thinking mastering the following concepts is crucial:
a) cause and effect
b) premise and conclusion
c) point of view
d) evidence
e) reason
f) assumption
g) inference
۲.۵.۱.۱. Critical Thinking and Inferences
Paul and Elder (2004) think making an inference is an essential

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