e me fail this class
Cause: you thought badly
Effect: I failed
Criteria for cause and effect
۱. The cause precedes the effect
Example: Spot’s barking should precedes waking up
۲. If the cause hadn’t happened, the effect wouldn’t have been happened
Example: If Spot hadn’t barked, I wouldn’t have wakened up.
Exercise: Which of the following sentences are cause and effect, determine their causes and effects. Do they fit the criteria?
۱. Coffee keeps me from getting a headache in the afternoon.
۲. The onion’s smell made my eyes tear.
۳. Dogs are great pets.
۴. Penicillin prevents serious infection.
۵. My hair looked nice today until I walked outside and the wind messed it up.
۶. People go to the beach to have fun.
Premise and Conclusion
Premises are supportive, but conclusions are supported.
Example 1: All dogs bark. Ralf is a dog. So it barks.
Analysis: it has two premises which support the conclusion.
Premises: 1) All dogs bark 2) Ralf is a dog
Conclusion: Ralf barks
Keeping the premises in mind it can be concluded that the conclusion is right.
Example 2: All professors teach. Ms Han is a professor. Therefore he teaches.
Analysis: Premises: 1) All professors teach 2) Ms Han is a professor
Conclusion: Ms Han teaches
Example3:Mrs. Jackson is in hospital. She had a heart attack. So, her life is in danger.
Analysis: Premises: 1) Mrs. Jackson is in hospital 2) She had a heart attach
Conclusion: her life is in danger
Note: There should be enough or logical reasons for the conclusion to be true.
Example 4: I think he broke the window.
We can rewrite this sentence: As I think he broke the window, so he broke the window.
Analysis: the premise is not strong enough to support the conclusion. It’s just the matter of personal opinion.
How to search for an argument
Search for premise and conclusion indicator words.
Common Premise Indicators
Thus as shown by since
for for the reason that
Because follows from
Common conclusion Indicators
So thus it follows that
Therefore hence accordingly
Then in conclusion consequently
But sometimes they are hidden.
Example 5: He is not a good friend; he didn’t lend me any money.
Analysis: Since he didn’t lend you the money, it doesn’t mean that he is not a friend. Not enough to support the conclusion.
DETERMINE THE PREMISES AND CONCLUSIONS IN THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES.
۱. I couldn’t tolerate him. He talks too much and always tells lie.
۲. According to students ‘ poor scores on the exam, every one is failed.
۳. It is snowing outside and every thing is frozen, it must be cold.
۴. I will bet nothing is going to be changed in the future.
۵. Cats are not better pets than dogs.
Write a short paragraph about English language benefits (at least three lines); give good reasons in the way that support your conclusion. (Use the words given in the box)
Argumentation involves in application of reasoning in order to support a conclusion, the main purpose is to convince others to believe something (it’s is not already believed by them).
Arguments have two aspects
It follows a specific structure, it’s the case of forms, it’s independent of its content (a valid argument may be true or false).
It is the case of content, good arguments have truth value (a good argument should be true)
Note: A valuable argument is the one which fits both aspects: it means it should not only follow specific structures but also it should have a truth value.
Common types of non-arguments
A piece of writing or speech that gives details about what someone or something is like
۱. Abraham Lincoln was president
۲. Winters are cold in Alaska
An explanation is a form of reasoning in which the conclusion is generally already believed by most or all members of the audience, no conviction involved
۱. Norouz holidays are celebrated in Iran, so we celebrate it every year.
A phrase or sentence that says exactly what a word, phrase, or idea means
۱. Rabbits are small animals with long ears and soft fur.
۲. Dogs means domestic canine.
How to detect an argument
۱: The first step is to search for premise and conclusion indicator words.
Note: common indicator words don’t guarantee the presence of an argument.
۲: The second step is to differentiate it from the three types of non-argumentsdescription, a definition, or an explanation.
۳: It shouldn’t be vague or dubious.
۴: Determine if the purpose of the words is to persuade others.
Example1: I was late for the appointment because my car broke down the accident slowed down the traffic.
Analysis Step 1: It has a common premise indicator word- because- and it shows that it could be an argument.
Step 2: It’s not either description or definition, but the speaker tried to show how and why he was late by giving reasons. So it’s an explanation.
Step 3: It’s not vague or dubious.
Step 4: All the listeners knew that he was late; he didn’t try to persuade others for his lateness.
So, it can be concluded that it is not an argument.
Example 2: All Americans like baseball. Mark is an American. So, Mark likes baseball.
Analysis Step1: the word- so- is a conclusion indicator word.
Step 2: It doesn’t describe, define, or explain anything.
Step 3: It is not vague or dubious.
Step 4: It tries to persuade others that the premises are true.
Example 3: Women are better than men.
Analysis: it’s too vague to be taken as an argument.
As it was mentioned earlier, indicator words are not always explicitly used in the texts, but most of the time they are hidden.
Example 4: Winters in Alaska are cold, now it’s winter. So, there must be cold.