n several ways:
A: it can be scored holistically: since the item assesses a wide, variety of competencies, the examiner may find it convenient to approach the text as the unit of translation and adopt this system, especially with a large number of students.
The examiner may, for instance, come up with the following scheme:
۱. Accuracy 20 percent
۲. Appropriateness 20 percent
۳.Naturalness 20 percent
۴.Cohesion 20 percent
۵. Style of discourse/choice of words 20 percent
۱.۶. Significance of the Study
According to Newmark(1988)“ translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language”(p.7). In other words “translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language(SL) into the receptor language”(RL) (Larson, 1984,p.3).To transfer the meaning from SL into RL a translator has to analyze, interpret carefully and thoughtfully to translate accurately to avoid any mistakes. During the process of translation a translator faces some choices and problems .To solve these problems s/he has to make his or her decisions.AsHatim and Masón (1990, pp.3–-۴, as cited in Pedro, Oliver, &Velasco Sacristán (2001) claim, translation should be viewed as:
(…) a process, involving the negotiation of meaning between producers and receivers of texts. In other words, the resulting translated text is to be seen as evidence of a transaction, a means of retracing the pathways of the translator’s decision-making procedures. In the same way, the ST itself is an end-product and again should be treated as evidence of a writer’s intended meaning rather than as the embodiment of the meaning itself(…P.2).
On the other hand Newmark(1998,p.8) maintains that “a translator, perhaps more than any other practitioner of a professioncontinually faces choices .In making his choice ,he is intuitively or consciously following a theory”.
Newmark (1988,p.6) also claims that “a translator has to be a good judge of writing; s/he must respect good writing scrupulously by accounting for its language, structures and content, whether the piece is scientific or poetic, philosophical or fictional”. In this regard, CT abilities are accountable. Glasar (1941, as cited in Fisher, 2001) lists the CT abilities as:
a) the ability to recognize problems, b) to find workable means for meeting those problems, c) to gather and marshal pertinent information, d) to recognize unstated assumptions and values, e) to comprehend and use language with accuracy clarity and discrimination, f) to interpret data, g) to appraise evidence and evaluate statements, h) to recognize the existence logical relationships between propositions, i ) to draw warranted conclusions and generalizations, and j) to render accurate judgments about specific things and qualities in everyday life(p.7).
CT is applied both in different academic courses, and is used in everydaylife. Hence, translation students can use it in the process of translation to analyze data, interpret, judge, solve problems, and make decisions. The researcher hopes that the result of this study may provide empirical evidence for choosing the appropriate instruction of teaching translation through CT. Therefore, the researcher tries to suggest a suitable solution for translation difficulties.
۱.۷. Limitations and Delimitations of the Study
The following are the limitations of the study:
۱. Like all studies, this research had a number of limitations, the major one is age. Since the range of age is unlimited at the universities in Iran, it is not possible to control the age factor. Hence, the age variable which might have an effect on the outcome of any study was not controlled in this study was not controlled in this investigation.
۲. Scarcity of students in each class caused the researcher to have just 21 students in each class.
۳. In this study, the participants’ ability to translate texts from English to Persian was measured not vice versa , as in classes where the study was conducted translation from English to Persian was practiced exclusively.
۴. There was no possibility for the researcher to teach the university classes. Therefore, she had to train the instructor of the classes to conduct the treatment.
Lack of time caused the researcher to choose some of the CT techniques.Wright (2002)’s techniques :a) cause and effectb) premise and conclusion c) point of viewd) evidencee) reason f) assumption g) inference which were more practical than the others techniques mentioned above were chosen to be taught regarding the limited time in this semester.
Review of the Related Literature
This chapter tries to review CT and the issues related to it. First, it considers thinking, types of thinking, CT skills,CTcharacteristics, andfinallysome scholars’ opinions in this regard.
Dunn, Baumfield, Elliott, Gregson, Miller and Roger, (2005, p.10) argue that trying to understand how people think and learn is in some ways an impossible challenge, since we can only try to understand these things by using the very processes that we do not fully understand. PaulandElder (2002,p.28)believe that good thinking is as easy as bad thinking but it requires hard work to develop it. To make significant gains in the quality of your thinking, you will have to engage in a kind of intellectual work.Dewey( 1933, p. 16 as cited in Dunn et al p.27)maintains that:
To be genuinely thoughtful, we must be willing to sustain and protract that state of doubt which is the stimulus to thorough enquiry, so as not to accept an idea or make a positive assertion of a belief until justifying reasons have been found.
Dewey (1933as cited in Dunn 2005, pp.3-5-6-9) refers to classic introduction to how one thinks that offers an overview of some of the different senses in which the term thinking is used:
• thinking as a “stream of consciousness” and the everyday uncontrolled coursing of ideas through our heads, including dreaming and daydreams;
• thinking as imagination or mindfulness which is usually restricted to things not directly perceived since one tends to say one saw a tree rather than one thought of a tree if one is actually standing with one’s eyes open in front of one.;
• thinking as synonymous with believing expressed in statements such as one thinks it is going to rain tomorrow; in this sense, it is contrasted with knowledge and the level of confidence with which one expresses such a belief;
• reflective thinking as a chain of thought leading, through enquiry, to a conclusion.
In this regard, Heuer (1999,p.2) believes that thinking analytically is a skill like carpentry or driving a car. It can be taught, learned, and improved with practice. All people think less or more, but they think in different stages. Elder and Paul (2004) lay out the following stages for thinkers:
Stage 1: The unreflective thinker when one is unaware of problems in one’s thinking.);
Stage 2:The challenged thinker when one becomes aware of problems in one’s thinking);
Stage 3: The beginning thinker when one tries to improve, but without regular practice;
Stage 4: The practicing thinker when one recognizes the necessity of regular practice;
Stage 5: The advanced thinker when one advances in accordance with one’s practice;
Stage 6: The master thinker when Skilled and insightful thinking becomes 2ndnature(p.69).
۲.۳Characteristics of a Critical Thinker
Having a clear definition of CT and a precise description of critical thinker helps to understand better the difference between individual thinking as Chaffee (1998, cited in Van der Wal, 1999) believes that:
Critical thinkers are people who have developed thoughtful and well-founded beliefs that guide their choices in every area of their lives. In order to develop these strongest and most accurate beliefs possible, one needs to become aware of one’s own biases, explores situations from many different perspectives, and develops sound reasons to support one’s points of view. These abilities are the tools one needs to become more enlightened and reflective—a “critical thinker”. (p. 3)
Allen (2004) uses smart thinking instead of CT. He believes that being a smart thinker is not becoming a different sort of person but is developing skills that one already has. The way to achieve this goal is to become explicitly aware of the analytical processes involved in reasoning. Moreover, Paul and Elder (2002,p.35) characterize a well cultivated critical thinker as one who
(a) raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely;
(b) gathers and assesses relevant information by using abstract ideas to interpret it well and comes to well-reasoned