lasts for 1 hour and 30 minutes, includs35 questions in multiple choice formats; the examinees needs to be able to read text from signs, journals, newspapers and magazines and understand the main points. In the writing part which includes 7 questions, they also need to show their ability to use vocabulary and structure by completing tasks such as writing short massage, and story or letter of around 100 words. They also need to complete an exercise involving changing of sentences.
Both experimental and control groups were taught using the same material and they received the same amount of instruction. In both classes the teacher distributed some unseen press texts prepared from net to be translated. In experimental class some critical techniques were taught as well.
۳.۳.۳. Pre Translation Production Test
In order to ensure homogeneity of the learners regarding their translation ability prior to the treatment, an English passage of 209words, comprising 2paragraphs, was selected fromPhilips (2003) (see Appendix).It was given totheparticipants to be translated from English to Persian.
۳.۳.۷. Post Translation Production Test
To compare the translation ability of the learners in the two groups after the treatment an English passage of 167words, comprising 3paragraphs, was selected from an article onAl Jazeera channel on the net titled The world bids farewell to Mandella (۲۰۱۳) (see Appendix).It was given to the participants to be translated from English to Persian.
At the beginning, a group of 75 students forming three intact classes took a sample PETas a proficiency test in order to enable the researcher to select homogeneous participants in terms of their English proficiency level. The sample test had already been piloted using thirty students with almost the same characteristics as those in the target sample before the actual administration in order to make sure that the test had appropriate reliability and item characteristics and thus was suitable to be administered to the target sample.
The main participants’ scores on the PET were compared, and two classes whose PET scores were not significantly different were chosen to undergo the study. The selected classes comprised 42 learners, 21 in each.Then, the homogeneity of the two classes regarding their translation ability at the start was ensured using a translation test as described above. Felt assured that the two classes were homogeneous regarding their general English proficiency and the dependent variable, the researcher randomly assigned the two classes to the experimental and the control groups.
Both experimental and control groups were taught using the same material and they received the same amount of instruction .The only difference was some techniques of critical thinking that were taught to the experimental group. The classes were instructed by the same teacher. The course consisted of 13 sessions of 90 minutes spanning over a period of approximately four months.
In the experimental class, shetaughtWright’s (2002)techniques of critical thinkingwhich were : a) cause and effect b) premise and conclusion c) point of view d) evidence e) reason f) assumption g) inference(see chapter II).
The teacher first taught a technique of critical thinking by writing it on the board and gave some examples to clarify it before students started the translation .There is an example below:
• Spot caused me to wake up. (Spot is a dog)
• Analysis: Spot is the thing that somehow caused me to wake up.
• It means: Spot’s barking caused me to wake up.
• The easy way to describe the cause is to say: Spot barks
• The easy way to describe the effect is to say: I woke up
• Spot barked ………………………… I woke up
Premise and Conclusion
Premises are supportive, but conclusions are supported.
• Example 1: All dogs bark. Ralf is a dog. So it barks
• Analysis: it has two premises which support the conclusion.
• Premises: 1) All dogs bark
• ۲) Ralf is a dog
• Conclusion: Ralf barks
Keeping the premises in mind it can be concluded that the conclusion is right
(See the index).
Then, the teacher gave students an unseen press passage each session to be translated. Students spent most of the class time translating the text and talking about their translation.I this example:
Ex-Soldier Became Contract Killer, Authorities Say
nytimes By BENJAMIN WEISER Published: September 27, 2013
His nickname was Rambo. He was a sergeant in the Army, and he trained soldiers to be snipers. But after leaving the military in 2004, the authorities say, he put his skills to work in a less honorable way: earning a living as a contract killer.
The teacher asked students to find the premises and conclusion.
۱.Rambo was a sergent in the army.(premis)
۲.He trained soldiers to be spiners(not an honorable job in the society).
۳.He put his skills to work in a less honorable way: earning a living as a contract killer.(finally,he chose a less honorable job as earning a living = conclusion)
۱-رامبو گروهبان ارتش بو
۲- اوبه سربازها اموزش می داد که جاسوس شوند (که شغل ابرو مندانه ای نبود)
۳-او تمام مهارت خود را در کار ننگینی به کار بست .اوباشغل قاتل قراردادی امرارمعاش میکرد.
A simple example may justify the effect of teaching critical thinking on the quality of student’s translation. In the experimental group the cause and effect was thought. The topic was anAmerican security man whoclearedAmericans’ security issues that concluded different debates in the society and led Americans to have a free atmosphere to talk and defense their rights in their community.
On the other hand in the control group the same passage was distributed to be translated. The routine procedure of translation was followed in this group, namely having each student translate the text and checking the accuracy and fluency of the translations by the teacher as read and discussed in the classroom.
After the instructional period, the two groups underwent the same translation posttest, and their translation performances were compared to reveal any possible effect of the independent variable, critical thinking application in translation, on translation ability of the learners.
۳.۵. Design of the Study
This study was a pre-experimental one, as the participants were not randomly selected. The study enjoyed a two- groups- posttest only design. The participants were intact groups of learners attending journalistic- texts- translation classes.The objective of the research was to determine the effect of critical thinking instruction onstudents’ translation quality.
The independent variable was critical thinking instruction,whilethe dependent variable was the quality of translations of the learners. .
۳.۶. Statistical Analysis
The descriptive analysis was done for the scores obtained from the PET piloting stage, as well as for the pre-treatment and posttest scores in which means and standard deviations were calculated.
The reliability of the PET test was estimated through Cronback Alpha formula. Also, the inter-rater reliability of scores given by the two raters scoring the PET writing and the translations was calculated through Pearson calculation correlation. A t-test was conducted to compare the two groups’ performance on thePET and Mann-whitney U test was run on translation scores at the outset, and a Mann-Whitney U test was performed to compare their translation posttest scores.
Details of the data analysis are discussed in the following chapter.
Results and Discussion
In the process of this study, the researcher conducted a series of calculations and statistical routines in order to test the hypothesis raised and came up with certain results that are elaborated comprehensively in this chapter. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were utilized in the process, details of which are presented and discussed below in a chronological order of participant selection, posttest administration, and testing the hypothesis.
۴.۲. Participant Selection
The first step in selecting the participants was to pilot the Proficiency English Test (PET). The PET consisted of35items including two sections of reading and writing. The test had a total score of 85and the administration of the test took 1:30 hours. This test was administered to a group of 30 intermediatelevel students at the university where the main study was conducted, bearing almost the same characteristics as the target sample.The reliability of the test was estimatedas(F=.931, p=.341.05)…All items went through an item analysis procedure and no item was discarded as they all enjoyed acceptable indices.
Then PET was administered to the three intact groups of