Newmark(1998)asserts: “As a means of communication, translation is used for multilingual notices, for tourist publicity; for official documents such as treaties and contracts; for reports, papers, articles, correspondence, and textbooks to convey information, advice and recommendation for every branch of knowledge”(P.7). According to Newmark(1998)“translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended in the text”(p.5). In other words “translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language (SL) into the receptor language” (RL) (Larson, 1984, p.3). A translator faces some difficulties during translation and may not convey the meaning of the SL to RLappropriately.AsNewmark(1988) puts it“when there is no such thing as a law of translation”(p.113), tohelpconvey the meaning from SL to RL in different texts in different languages what should a translator do? Is it possible to find a way to lesson unpredictable difficulties during a translation?
Scriven and Paul ( 1987), indicatethatcritical thinking(CT) is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.
Facion (2010) also believes that CT includes the following cognitive skills: interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, explanation, and self-regulation. So a critical thinker should have especial skills in order to make a good judgment. Critical thinkers observe carefully, rely on evidence, ask right questions, and identify problems based on reasons. These thinkers are opposite to unreflective people who are biased, jump to conclusion and delay too long in making a good decision. These definitions of CT indicate the importance of thinking especially in the production of new ideas and problem solving. . On the other hand Paul and Elder (2004) think making an inference is an essential part of comprehension. Writers can’t make all the information explicit in a text. It is relied on reader to make necessary inferences in each case.
Schafersman(1991) believes that children are not born with the power to think critically, nor do they develop this ability naturally beyond survival-level thinking. Critical thinking is a learned ability that must be taught. Most individuals never learn it. Critical thinking cannot be taught reliably to students by peers or by most parents. Trained and knowledgeable instructors are necessary to impart the proper information and skills.. Regarding the teachability of critical thinking Wright (2002) proposes three main ways for teaching critical thinking in the class, teacher modeling, classroom activities, and teaching the tools of critical thinking.Wright (2002) proposes several ways of organizing for instruction in critical thinking: teach a separate course or unit, infuse critical thinking into what we teach, or we can use a mixed approach.Wright (2002) as well believes that in teaching critical thinking mastering the following concepts is crucial: a) cause and effect b) premise and conclusion c) point of viewd) evidence e) reason f) assumption
Bailin (2002) holds firmly to the idea that becoming proficient at critical thinking involves, among other things, takes the acquisition of certain kinds of knowledge. Knowledge of critical concepts such as ‘premise’, ‘conclusion’, ‘cause and effect’, ‘necessary and sufficient condition’; knowledge of methodological principles; and knowledge of the criteria for critical judgment.
There is not an appropriate and sufficient theory of CT for application in translation and education but as Robinson (2003 as cited in Kelly.2005) mentions, translation is an intelligent activity involving complex processes of conscious and unconscious learning.
According to the above-mentioned forerunners of CT Critical thinking and learning how to think critically may have a crucial role in translation.
۱.۲. Statement of the problem
The quality of translation is different from person to person. When a text is given to a number of translators with the same age, social, and educational background to be translated the products are not the same. According to Shahvali (cited in Razmjou 2004), theoretical knowledge and practical skills alone are not adequate to prepare students to have the developments in the field. There is a need for the ability to develop; therefore, it is necessary to focus on students’ self- updating and to develop their relevant mental, communicative, and planning skills.
Moreover, there are many factors that influence the quality of translation. The question is that what happens in the mind of a translator that translates differently from the others at the same age and level of knowledge. To provide the answer, one needstolook at the job with a critical perspective to delve into the differences.
As Newmark (1998) points out, translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language of a text in the way that the author intended the text. Since the writers cannot possibly make explicit all the information in the text it is heavily relied on the translators to make necessary inferences in each case, but some of them usually cannot grasp the intended points writers try to convey. Translation students in translating the texts need deep thinking to overcome the challenges they have during translation.Aguado-Giménez(2005) argues that translation students are continually faced with choices. In making them, they are intuitively or consciously following a theory of translation to identify and define a translation problem, to indicate all the factors that have to be taken into account in solving the problem.
According to Facion (2010, p. 5), CT includes a number of cognitive skills which are “interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, explanation, and self-regulation”. Facion believes that evaluation means to assess the credibility of statements or other representations which are accounts or descriptions of a person’s perception, experience, situation, judgment, belief, or opinion and to assess the logical strength of the actual or intended inferential relationship among statements, description on questions, or other forms of representation.
Among all the factors influential in translation, the translator’s way of thinking and being a critical thinker may make a difference. Hence this study was an attempt to see if critical thinking instruction has any effect on EFL learners’ translation ability.
۱.۳. Research question
To fulfill the purpose of the study, which was to find any possible impact of CT on translation quality of translation students the following question was raised:
۱. Does critical thinking have any significant effect on translation ability of translations students?
۱.۴. Research Hypothesis
To provide an empirical answer to the above question, the following null hypothesis was proposed:
H (0): Critical thinking does not have any significant effect on translationability of translation students.
۱.۵. Definition of Key Terms
According to Moor andParker(2000) “CT is the determination of whether we should accept, reject, or suspend judgment about a claim and of a degree of confidence with which we accept or reject it” (p.4).
According to Newmark(1988)“ translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language”(p.7). In this study, the translation abilityof the learners was checked through translation tests comprising passaged extracted from TOEFL (2003) for the pre-treatment test, and a press passage prepared from valued resources on the net for the posttest. The texts were journalisticand two and three paragraphs in length respectively.
Farahzad‘s Model of TQA
Farahzad (1992, p.276) maintains that there are two main features that are to be checked in scoring for each unit of translation and they are as follows:
۱. Accuracy: the translation should convey the information in the ST precisely i.e. the translation should be close to the ST norms.
۲. Appropriateness: the sentences should sound fluent and native and be correct in terms of structure.
Farahzad (1992) statesthat unnatural translations which convey the source text’s meaning receive half a score, whereas inaccurate translations receives no score, no matter how appropriate and natural the target texts sound. In error recognition items, one score is given for spotting the error, and another one for correcting it. Farahzad (1992, p. 277) believes that scoring the long text can be done in