scores given by the first rater were not normally distributed as the sig value was smaller than .05.
The following graph shows the linearity of the distribution.
Figure4.2.scatter plot showing the relationship between the scores given by both raters to the CG
As illustrated above, the dots do not show any non-linear shape, however they seem toberather flatly distributed which indicates a low correlation.
The following table shows the result of a Spearman correlation.
Table 4.14.Correlation between the scores given by both raters to the CG
As expected, the correlation did not turn out to be significant (r=.456, p=.057.05). However, as the researcher did not have access to any other raters, and as the sig value reported above was almost identical with the critical value (.05), she decided to continue with the means of their scores.
The following table shows the result of the normality check of the averaged scores belonging to both groups.
Table4.15.Tests of Normality of the two groups’ posttest scores
EX Group scores
As shown above, the CG’s scores were not normally distributed as the sig value was smaller than .05. Therefore, the Mann-Whitney U test had to be run as a non-parametric equivalent for a t-test. The following tables show the result:
Table4.16.Ranks of the two groups’ posttest scores
Sum of Ranks
Table 4.17.Mann-Whitney U Test Statisticsb
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
Exact Sig. [2*(1-tailed Sig.)]
As shown in table 4.16 above, the two groups obtained scores with only one point difference (18 vs 19). And table 4.17 shows the non-significance of this difference (M=153, P=.773.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis fails to be rejected, implying that the two groups performed equally on their translation posttest.
The following graph visually shows the difference in their means.
Figure4.3 Bar graph representing the posttest mean scores of the two groups
The present study aimed to investigate whether there was any effect of CT instruction on the quality of students’ translation. The results of data analyses showed that both groups performed similarly at the posttest. Given that both groups of learners were shown to be homogeneous regarding their translation ability prior to the intervention, it is concluded that CT instructions could not significantly improve translation ability of the learners. Assuming that the more critical thinker the learners are, the better readers and translators they are did not turn to hold true in this study. Rudd (2006) holds that teachers must be aware of students’ academic strengths and weaknesses, as well as other personal factors that can influence problem solving and decision making that are ingredients of critical thinking. The environment in which the teaching and learning occurs is critical to the success of thinking processes.
As for the result of the present study, the researcher’s speculation is that, if she were able to remove the shortages including the scarcity of the participants’ number in the two classes, or control the age and motivation/interest of the learners towards translation as personal factors, the result would be different from what was obtained in this study. Also, time span might not have been enough to lead to a significant effect of CT instruction on the learners’ translation ability. Further studies are needed to verify the finding of this study.
The result of this study may have altered if other techniques of CT were implemented as well.
CONCLUSIONS AND PEDAGOGICALIMPLICATIONS
The purpose of this study was to investigate whethercritical thinking instruction has any significant effect on the translation ability of translation students. Accordingly, the following research question and null hypothesis were raised:
۱. Does critical thinking have any significant effect on translation ability of translations students?
H (0): Critical thinking does not have any significant effect on translation abilityof translations students.
To fulfill the purpose of the study, two groups of learners shown to be homogeneous regarding their general English proficiency and translation ability were divided into two groups of experimental and control. The experimental group received instructions on critical thinking techniques to apply to their translations. The control group received the routine instructions and practice of translation. The result of the posttest analysis demonstrated that learning CT techniques did not have any significant effect on having a better translation achievement by learners.
The results of this study does not support earlier research on translation quality which found that CT accelerates achievement as well as having positive effects on certain important factors such as decision making, analysis and interpretation .Newmark (1998) assumes that “all translation is partly science, partly craft, partly art, partly a matter of test”(p.189). Perhaps the text chosenby the researcher did not have enough ambiguity to make the translator get involved with the whats and whys in order to perceive the text. Maybe the trained CT techniques were not enough to prepare translation students to do well..
۵.۳. Pedagogical Implications
According to Schafersman (1991), children are not born with the power to think critically, nor do they develop this ability naturally beyond survival level. CT is a learned ability that must be taught .Most individuals never learn it .CT cannot be taught reliably to students by peers or by parents. Trained and knowledgeable instructors are necessary to impart the proper information and skills.Students often are passive receptors of information, teaching students to think critically in or outside the classroom improve their abilities to observe, infer, question, decide, develop new ideas, and analyze arguments.
Since the outcome of this study showed no significant effect, the researcher fails to have any categorical suggestions based on her own finding for practitioners in the field of translation and general EFL education. However, giventhepossibility that limitations and delimitations of the present study led to the obtained result and based on general benefits of critical thinking, some implications might be in place. First of all trained instructors are required to have knowledge of CT and its advantages in order to train translation students. Then the effectiveness of students’ CT can be also put into consideration in syllabus designing on how to improve their CT ability in TTC (Teachers Training Courses) classes. CT could also gain a place in teaching material such as teachers’ books and textbooks. Teachers may moreover apply a variety of strategies such as expressing emotions, summary writing (encouraging student to understand material), creating problems, and some tests in order to improve students` CT skills.
۵.۴ Suggestions for Further Research
Every research opens a new horizon for further investigations. The present research was an attempt to introduce CT and survey the relation between CT and students’ translation quality. What follows is what the researcher suggests for further research:
۱. This study may be developed by focusing on sex and age. In other words further research might reveal that different age groups and gender respond differently to critical thinking instructions.
۲. It is possible to go through the sub-skills of CT which include the ability to interpret, analyze, evaluate, infer, explain, and self-regulate(Facion, 2010) to see their effects on translation ability of EFL learners.
۳. The same study can be conducted to examine the relationship between teachers’ critical thinking and their students’ translation quality. .
۴. In this study, translation from English to Persian was the focus. Other similar studies may also take into consideration translation from Persian to English.
۵. Last but not the least, replication of this study with higher number of participants and longer instructional period is strongly recommended.